Greetings to you and many thanks for visiting our website. It is true that one of the most difficult challenges facing many undergraduates in many schools – colleges, polytechnics, and universities – is how to conduct research project and report it thereafter. The fact that many schools attach a very high credit load to research project works makes this a very serious matter. How well or how poorly a student conducts and reports his research project ultimately impacts on his final CGPA and determines the class of degree or diploma he goes out with.
Our intention in this article is to make you become aware of the best way to report your research project in order to make an “A” (distinction). Note that in writing this, we have taken due consideration of most schools of thought and orientations.
Content of the Research Report
The following order should be followed in reporting a research project:
– Title page
– Approval page
– Dedication page
– Table of Contents
– List of tables if any
– List of figures if any
Read Also: How to Source Materials for Project Writings (Downloads)
MAIN BODY OF THE PROJECT
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
· Background to the study
The background should explore the importance of the problem (Dependent Variable). It may begin with the definitions or descriptions of the focus variable(s) DV and followed by stating why the problem deserves a new research and then introducing the independent variables needed in the new research.
· Statement of the problem
· Research questions (optional)
· Purpose of the Study
· Operational definition of terms
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
· Conceptual Review:
This is necessary if the variable of study are non classical variables which could not be well covered under the introduction of variables in chapter one. For instance, if there is further need to elaborate on the variables and such elaboration is beyond the scope of background/chapter one to the study as evidence in development of new tools for testing the variables or general paradigm shift which the research need to report to support the study position.
· Theoretical Review
This must contain the name of the proponent of the theory, the year the theory was proposed and critical review of the theory as it relates to the present study or research variables.
· Empirical Review
Critical review of the present works that are related to the present research, citing the author(s), year the study was done, how it was done, the finding and how it may related to the present study.
This is normally derived from the research questions, primary and secondary objectives of the study. It should be stated in null or alternative format depending on what the literature suggested.
CHAPTER THREE: METHOD
How many participants, from which sampling frame, who are they, how were they selected from the sample frame (sampling technique and sample size formula), age and average age, standard deviation and gender and other important characteristics peculiar to the participants.
Instrument(s) for measuring the variables of study should be arranged according to their order of appearance in the topic with the following information provided for each: name of the instrument, name of the developer(s), year of publication, number of items in the instrument, the response pattern, one or two samples of the items in the scale, meaning of different levels or directions of the score in the instrument; brief report of the pilot study to provide evidence for the reliability and validity if the instrument was developed in the course of the present research.
How consent to conduct study was approved starting from department to organization or places where the research was executed, how data was collected using any of the systematic data methods in sciences, how they were collated, what are the percentages of valid and invalid responses. Simply put, this section report steps taken from approval to finish, vivid terms.
· Design and statistics
Clearly state the design that will suit the type of data collected for the study and the corresponding/suitable statistics for the analyses.
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS
The tables, figures must follow the APA format for reporting tables, figures and graphs. The title before table, then interpretation of table for each of the tables or figures.
CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
· Limitations of the study
· Suggestion for future studies
· Implications of the study
Note: the findings of the study are discussed one after the other, studies that have similar and divergent findings are shown, and possible reasons for such similarities and difference are shown. Again, the possible explanations for current results are both in favour and against theoretical orientations are shown.
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