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Course Outline for Botany (Plant Science and Biotechnology)

Course Outlines for Botany. Course Content for Botany. Full Course Module for Plant Science and Biotechnology.

Botany (Plant Science and Technology)

Table of Contents

What is Botany?

Botany is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. It is otherwise referred to as plant science, plant biology or phytology and studies plant structure, properties, and biochemical processes. Specialists in the field also study plant classifications, diseases and interactions of different plant species with the environment. Scientists who specialize in the field of Botany are called botanists, plant scientists or phytologists.

Plant Science and Biotechnology

Many departments in different institutions which offer Botany have ‘upgraded’ the course to Plant Science and Biotechnology. Plant sciences has to do with the observation of plant growth and characteristics and investigation into the relationship between plants and their environment. On the other hand, Plant biotechnology is the use of tissue culture and genetic engineering techniques to produce genetically modified plants that exhibit new or improved desirable characteristics, features and qualities.

How Many Years is Plant Science and Technology Offered?

The Department of Plant Science and Technology offers a 4-year programme by normal UTME entry mode and a 3-year programme by direct entry leading to a Bachelor of Science (B.Sc.) Honours degrees with emphasis in Plant Science and Technology.

Entry Requirements for Plant Science and Technology

In addition to the general university minimum entry requirements, both categories of candidates (i.e. UTME and Direct Entry mode) are expected to obtain a credit pass in English, Biology, Chemistry, Physics and Mathematics in the West African School Certificate Examination (WAEC) or G.C.E., O’ level or its equivalent. Direct entry students are also expected to obtain passes at principal level in the Higher School Certificate Examination (HSCE) or G.C.E. level or its equivalent in Chemistry and Biology or Botany or Zoology.

Aspects and Fields Covered by Plant Science and Technology

Plant Science and Technology is designed to cover the

  • basic principles of biological science
  • Plant Anatomy
  • Plant Taxonomy
  • Biosystematics
  • Plant Morphology
  • Plant Pathology
  • Mycology
  • Plant Physiology
  • Plant Ecology
  • Cytology
  • Genetics
  • Plant Micro-technique and Photography
  • Fungus Physiology
  • Plant Virology
  • Dendrology
  • Economic Botany
  • Plant Morphogenesis
  • Tree Growth
  • Fresh Water Algology
  • Bryology
  • Embryology of Angiosperms
  • Palynology

Is Plant Science and Biotechnology a Good Course to Study?

Yes, Plant Science and Biotechnology is a very good course to study. Though as is the case with many other courses in Nigeria, graduates of the course as not as valuable and useful as they are in most developed countries.

Career Opportunities in Plant Science and Biotechnology in Nigeria

Many people who are interested in the course ask the very important question, “Where can a plant science and biotechnologist work?” The truth is that there are reasonably high number of Job opportunities for graduates of Plant Science and Technology in Nigeria.

A B.Sc Degree programme in Plant Science and Biotechnology will afford the graduates the opportunity to render services in specialized areas like Industrial standardization, Factory inspection, Agriculture, Teaching/Research
in the Universities, Polytechnics and other Research Institutes, Environmental Management and Biotechnology.

Graduates of Plant Science and Biotechnology are valuable human resources in large Agricultural Biotechnology companies that require skills in Tissue Culture and Transformation, Recombinant DNA Technology and Molecular Biology, Protein and Nucleic Acid Biochemistry, Genomics, Proteomics and Bioinformatics.

They can also work in

  • Criminal Investigation Institutions.
  • Conservation and Wild-life Management.
  • Wood Technology and Industries, such as Sugar, Rubber, Paper Pulp, Fertilizer and Oil (Vegetable and Mineral).
  • Petroleum Refinery.
  • Establishment of orchards and plantations for food and raw material production.
  • Off season vegetable and fruit production and preservation.
  • Production of seedless fruits.
  • Establishment of germplasm companies.
  • Beekeeping for honey and synergy in crop productivity.

Plant Science and Biotechnology Course Salary in Nigeria

Depending on the establishment, graduates of Plant Science and Biotechnology earn something between ₦60,608 and ₦172,969 net per month at the start of the job. After about 5 years of service, there salary raise may be given.

Plant Science and Biotechnology Course Outlines (4-year Degree Programme)


First Semester

Course No.                                    Title                                                                Unit

Major Courses

BIO 151                                  General Biology I                                                        3

PSB 101                                  General Plant Science                                                 2

Required Ancillary Courses

CHM 101                                Basic Principles of Chemistry I                                   2

CHM 171                                Basic Practical Chemistry                                           2

COS 101                                 Introduction to Computer Science                             2

GSP 101                                  Use of English I                                                          2

GSP 111                                  Use of Library and Study Skills                                  2

PHY 111                                 General Physics for Life Sciences I                             2

PHY 191                                 Practical Physics                                                         2

MTH 111                                General Mathematics 1                                              3

Total                                                                                                                       22                                                                                               

Second Semester

Major Courses

BIO 152                                  General Biology II                                                       3

BIO 154                                  General Biology Practical                                            2

PSB 102                                  General Plant Biotechnology                                      2

CHM 112                                Basic Principles of Chemistry II                                   2

CHM 122                                Basic Principles of Chemistry   III                                2

PHY 112                                 General Physics for Life Sciences II                             2

PHY 114                                 General Physics for Life Sciences III                            2

Required Ancillary Courses

GSP 102                                  Use of English II                                                        2

MCB102                                 Introductory Microbiology                                        2

PSB162                                   Climate Change and Plant Life I                                1

Total                                                                                                                      20



First Semester

Course No.                             Title                                                                       Unit

Major Courses

BCH 201                                 General Biochemistry I                                               3

PSB 211                                  Phycology and Bryology                                            2

PSB 221                                  General Plant Anatomy                                              2

PSB 241                                  General Mycology                                                      2

PSB261                                   Climate Change and Plant Life II                                1

Required Ancillary Courses

BIO351                                   General Genetics                                                         2

CED 341                                 Introduction to Entrepreneurship                               2

CHM 221                                General Organic Chemistry I                                      2

CHM 273                                Practical Organic Chemistry I                                     2

GSP 207                                  Logic, Philosophy and Human Existence                   2

GSP 201                                  Basic Concepts and Theory of Peace                         2

Total                                                                                                                       22

Second Semester

Major Courses

BCH 202                                 General Biochemistry II                                             3

BIO 352                                  Cytogenetics                                                              2

PSB 246                                  General Plant Pathology                                            2

PSB 272                                  Mushroom Technology                                              2

Required Ancillary Courses

CED 342                                 Business Development & Management                     2

CHM 222                                General Organic Chemistry    II                                  2

CHM 274                                Practical Inorganic Chemistry I                                  2

COS 304                                 Computer Applications                                              2

GSP 208                                  Nigerian Peoples and Culture                                    2

GSP 202                                  Issues in Peace and Conflict Resolution Studies        2

Total                                                                                                                        21


Course No.                             Title                                                                            Units

First Semester

Major Courses

PSB 313                                  Morphology & Phytosystematics of Higher Plants     2

PSB 331                                  General Plant Physiology                                            2

PSB 355                                  General Plant Molecular Biology                                2

PSB 391                                  Research Methods and Plant Breeding                      2

Required Ancillary Courses

BCH 301                                 Enzymology                                                                2

BCH 351                                 Primary Metabolic Pathways  I                                   2

BCH 352                                 Primary Metabolic Pathways  II                                 2

BCH 353                                 Primary Metabolic Pathways  III                                2

BCH 354                                 Primary Metabolic Pathways  IV                                2

CHM 211                                General Physical Chemistry I                                     2

Total                                                                                                                       22

Second Semester

PSB 392                                  Students Industrial Work Experience (SIWES)

Field work                                                                                                                  6

PSB 394                                  SIWES Report                                                              6

PSB 396                                  SIWES Seminar                                                             3

                                                Total                                                                           15



First Semester

Course No.                             Title                                                                       Unit

Major Courses

PSB 303                                  Ethnomedicinal Plants                                                2

PSB 431                                  Advances in Plant Physiology                                     2

PSB 441                                  Advances in Plant Pathology                                       2

PSB 463                                  Economic and Industrial Botany                                 2

PSB 481                                  Seminar                                                                       2

PSB 491                                  Principles of Scientific Writing                                    1

BCH 401                                 Advanced Enzymology                                                2

BCH 411                                 Biosynthesis of Macromolecules                                  2

BCH 431                                 Bioinorganic Chemistry                                                2

BCH 481                                 Biochemical Reasoning                                                1

Electives (Choose any 2 units)                                                                                  2

PSB 411                                  Dendrology                                                                  2

PSB 413                                  Herbarium and Phytosystematics                                2

PSB 415                                  Introductory Palynology                                              2

PSB 417                                  Freshwater Phycology                                                 2

PSB 433                                  Plant Embryology &Morphogenesis                           2

PSB 443                                  Fungus Physiology                                                      2

PSB 445                                  Plant Virology and Diagnostics                                   2

PSB 451                                  Cytology                                                                      2

PSB 453                                  Genetics and Plant Breeding                                       2

PSB 457                                  Phytoinformatics                                                         1

PSB 461                                  Aquatic and Pollution Biology                                    2

PSB 465                                  Phyto-Environmental Impact Assessment                  2

PSB 471                                  Tissue Culture and Micropropagation                        2

PSB 473                                  Phytobiofuels                                                              1

PSB 475                                  Plant Biophysics                                                          2

PSB 477                                  Applications of Plant Biotechnology                          2

Total                                                                                                                       20

Second Semester

BCH 452                                 Metabolic Regulations                                                2

BCH 462                                 Plant Biochemistry                                                      2

PSB 422                                  Plant anatomy                                                             2

PSB 462                                  Plant Ecology                                                              2

PSB 466                                  Phyto-industrial Relations                                          1

PSB 468                                  Phytoremediation & Erosion Management                2

PSB 474                                  Phytobiotechnology Ethics                                         1

PSB 492                                  Project                                                                         6

Required Ancillary Course

BIO 362                                  Basic Principles of Ecology                                        2

Total                                                                                                                      20


Plant Science and Biotechnology Course Description

PSB 101          GENERAL PLANT SCIENCE                                                             2 units

Survey of plant groups from algae/fungi to angiosperms.Comparative morphology of all major groups of plants with special emphasis on the local flora. General anatomy of monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous flora. General principles of plant physiology. The principles and processes involved and uses of various structures (whole plants, plant parts and products) must be discussed as to highlight their utilization for provision of goods and services.

PSB 102          GENERAL PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY                                             2 units

Definition, origin and history of plant biotechnology, Basic terminologies used in biotechnology.Introduction to basic in vitro techniques. Concept of cell Totipotency. Explants for in vitro culture (embryo, seed, meristem, organs etc). Tissue culture media – preparation and storage. Sterilization techniques (labware/media/explants). Cultural conditions (chemical and physical environments). Isolation of nucleic acids and proteins.Introduction to genes and genomes. Applications of biotechnology in industries, agriculture, health, environment, forensic, biological warfare etc.

PSB 162   CLIMATE CHANGE AND PLANT LIFE I                                                 1 unit

Concept of weather and climate; climatic factors; Past climates, glacial, etc and vegetation types (fossil plants); Present climatic zones of the earth and vegetation types – Tropical rain forest, savanna, mangrove etc; Reconstruction of past climates through fossil studies – phytoplankton, algae, pollen etc.

PSB 211          PHYCOLOGY AND BRYOLOGY                                                       2 units

General characteristics of Algae; Classification of Algae; General characteristics, Structure and reproduction of representative forms; and Economic importance of the following algal phyla: Cyanobacteria, Glaucophyta, Rhodophyta, Chlorophyta, Euglenophyta, Dinophyta, Apicomplexa, Cryptophyta, Heterokontophyta, (Xanthophyceae, Chrysophyceae, Bacillariophyceae, Phaeophyceae and Prymnesiophyta); Similarities and differences between algae and bryophytes. General characteristics of Bryophytes; Classification of Bryophytes; General characteristics; Structure and reproduction of representative forms; and Economic importance of the following bryophyte groups Hepaticopsida, Anthocerotopsida and Bryopsida.


General features and classification of Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms (both living and extinct). Alternation of generations. Types, organizational structure and development of sporangia. Types of steles. Life history of selected members of various families.

PSB 221          GENERAL PLANT ANATOMY                                                          2 units

The origin of primary body of plants.The structures, organization and functions of plant cells, tissues and tissue system. Plants cells for storage of food and other ergasticsubstances. Anatomy of monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous stem roots and leaves. Anatomy of xerophytes and hydrophytes. The cambium and its derivatives. Secondary growth. Xylem and bark in relation to cambial activity. Gymnosperm and Angiosperm wood. Plant micro-techniques.

PSB 241          GENERAL MYCOLOGY                                                                      2 units

A general account of the concepts of origin, affinities, distribution and economic importance of fungi. Morphology, taxonomy and reproduction of various classes of fungiwith emphasis on local flora. An introduction to the construction of dichotomous key through understanding of mycological terminologies. Collection and preparation of herbarium specimens.

PSB 246          GENERAL PLANT PATHOLOGY                                                        2 units

Definition of concepts; classification and symptoms of plant diseases; Koch`s postulates. Disease triangle/pyramid. Morphology, taxonomy, reproduction, ecology, spread/epidemiology, identification, detection, isolation, composition and structure, transmission, nomenclature, symptoms and control /management of plant pathogenic bacteria, fungi, viruses, nematodes and plants.

PSB 261          CLIMATE CHANGE AND PLANT LIFE II                                           1 unit

Causes of climate change, natural and anthropogenic; pollution- air, water and land, (causes, impact and mitigation); global warming: definition, greenhouse gases (sources, impact and mitigation). Impacts of climate change on life and environment, climate change and natural disasters; soil erosion; flooding; fire; environmental degradation, desert encroachment etc. Effects of climate change on causation of pattern of plant distribution and reproduction – vegetation etc.

PSB 272          MUSHROOM TECHNOLOGY                                                            2 units

History of mushroom cultivation. Collection, identification and preservation of mushrooms. Spawn production. Inoculation procedures and cultivation of mushrooms. Pests and diseases of mushrooms. Industrial production and marketing of mushrooms etc.

PSB 274          PLANT MACROPROPAGATION AND FLORICULTURE                    1 unit

Evaluation of the economic values of indigenous and exotic horticultural plants. Different propagation techniques for rapid propagation of indigenous tree crops.Growing flowers from seeds and cuttings, nursery techniques, hydroponics and use of plant hormones for accelerated propagation. Irrigation and dry season production of fruits and vegetables, Phenology and conservation. 

PSB 301          PHYTOTECHNIQUES                                                                          1 unit

Biological drawings, Microtomy, Microscopy, Autoclaving, Photography and Photomicroscopy, Preparation of Microscope slides, Cytological techniques, Collection and preservation of plant specimens; Introductory Herbarium techniques, Mycological techniques; Photometry, Colorimetry, Chromatography, Chlorometry, Amino acid analysis, etc.

PSB 303          ETHNOMEDICINAL PLANTS                                                              2 units

Description, identification and classification of medicinal plants. Preparation of extracts from various organs of plants. Gathering of ethnomedicalinformation. Collection and conservation of medicinal plants. Relation of the medicinal qualities of plants to their habits, structures, functions and ecological niches. Refining of ethnomedicinal practices by indigenous people in relation to correct dosage and elimination of contaminants.


General morphology of Angiosperms; root, stem, leaf and shoot modifications. Ontogeny and Morphological interpretation of flowers. Structure and development of anther and ovule. Types of inflorescences. Features of selected families. Clinical and modern taxonomy. Origin of monocotyledons. Collection, identification and preservation of plant materials.

PSB 315          PALAEOBOTANY                                                                                 2 units

Floral biology; micropalaeobotany of spores and pollens, Carbon dating, Evolution and Systematics of plants, Principles and uses of Palaeoecology. Fossilization – types, and prevailing conditions. Reconstruction of past flora, communities and environment using fossil deposits etc.

PSB 331          GENERAL PLANT PHYSIOLOGY                                                        2 units

The physical and chemical properties of living plant cells; water, mineral and soil relations of plants; intermediary metabolism; growth and development. Respiration, Photosynthesis, Protein synthesis. Absorption and translocation. The control of growth and differentiation, plant growth hormones. The control of development, hormones and gene activity. Plant and manometry, chromatography and bioassay of growth hormone. Practical work covering the above topics.

PSB 355          GENERAL PLANT MOLECULAR BIOLOGY                                      2 units

Biogenesis of microtubules, microfilaments, golgi and mitochondria. Membrane – membrane interactions. Introduction to bioenergetics and thermodynamics. History and present trends in molecular Biology. Reproduction, cell division, cell differentiation and growth of cells. A brief study of the molecular basis of cell structure and development. Organelles – chloroplasts, cellulose cell wall. Plant proteins and nucleic acids. Electrophoresis and its principles; Agarose gel electrophoresis; SDS – page etc.

PSB 363          FOREST RESOURCES CONSERVATION                                           2 units

Major Features of Nigerian Vegetation Types. Forest Resources with emphasis on Timber, Food, Medicine and Industrial Raw Materials. Effects of Deforestation and Afforestation. Methods for Sustainable Conservation of Forest Resources.


Adaptive features and physiognomy of trees and shrubs. Physiological adaptations to climate change, C3 and C4 plants. Influence of climate change on periodicity of plants, seed dormancy, dispersal, germination and vegetative propagation. Environmental impact assessment and climate change. Climate change and plant evolution, Plant breeding for adaptation to climate change.Field study on impact of climate change on plants in diverse ecological habitats etc.


Reduction of carbon emissions, recycling, tree seedling production. Carbon sequestration strategies. Tree planting. Global policy and mitigation issues – energy, natural resource, population, education, integrated adaptation, etc. Global policy frameworks United Nations Framework on Climate Change (UNFCC), Kyoto Protocol, UN Conference on Environment and Development – Rio de Janeiro, Johannesburg Summit, Copenhagen Climate Change Summit etc.

PSB 371          PRINCIPLES OF PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY                              2 units

Traditional Biotechnology, microbial fermentation etc. DNA: Types and functions; Basic structure of DNA; DNA replication, transcription and translation; Concept of genes; genetic codes and gene expression; Genetic modifications in living organisms; Types of DNA in living organisms and their locations in the cell; Gene cloning; Introduction of foreign gene into a host – transformation and transfection; Restriction enzymes and other enzymes used in genetic engineering; Cloning vectors: plasmids, bacteriophages, Yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs), Bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs), Agrobacteriumtumifaciens in gene transfer, gene gun etc. Genetic engineering of plants and creation of transgenic plants.

PSB 391      RESEARCH METHODS AND PLANT BREEDING                          2 units

Field and laboratory data collection, categorization, organization and presentation. Experimental designs and data analysis. Introductory principles and practice of Plant breeding. Course is designed to prepare students for sound experimental designs, data interpretations and development of independent research capabilities in their final year.


Industrial attachment in an approved Plant Science and Biotechnology basedindustry/organization for 6 months.

PSB 394          SIWES REPORT                                                                          6 units

Detailed written report on activities carried out during the industrial work experience.

PSB 396          SIWES SEMINAR                                                                         3 units

Oral and visual presentation based on the industrial work experience, using accumulated data and experience, from the 6 months exercise.

PSB 411          DENDROLOGY                                                                             2 units

Morphology of plants and organs. Marking vegetation; physiognomy of trees and shrubs of the Nigerian Rain Forest and Savannas-stilt roots, pneumatophores; bole and classification of Nigerian flora. Forest Ecology. Beyond the forest.Elementary forest mensuration; Silviculture.

PSB 413          HERBARIUM AND PHYTOSYSTEMATICS                                  2 units

The studies of taxonomic characters; taxonomic evidence from external morphology, anatomy, cytology, phytochemistry. Variation within population. Population and environment. Computers and Taxonomy. Uses of phytosystematics in special areas like, pharmacognosy, palynology, phytogeography etc. Chemical plant taxonomy, past and recent advances in taxonomic research.

PSB 415          INTRODUCTORY PALYNOLOGY                                                 2 units

Outline and history of Palynology: Aspects of Palynology. The pollen grain; its form and function; morphological terminology, pollen and spores; development physiology and biochemistry; principles of pollination ecology, the production and dispersal of pollen and spores; pollen analysis in Palaeoecology; geology, melissopalynology, oil and petrochemical industries etc.

PSB 417          FRESHWATER PHYCOLOGY                                                        2 units

Identification of freshwater algae. Types of freshwater habitats and their characteristics. Algal habitats and their characteristics. Sampling techniques, population estimates and dynamics in relation to seasonal changes. Aquatic pollution. Economic importance of algae etc

PSB 422          PLANT ANATOMY                                                                       2 units

Anomalous growth. Reaction wood. Distinction between wood and timber. Softwoods and hardwoods. Wood cell wall morphology under light microscope/ultrastructure. Properties of wood. Moisture characteristics of wood. Biotic agents of wood destruction. Wood preservation chemicals and treatment methods. Wood anatomy and biotechnology in criminology. Manufactured wood products. Some West African timbers and their characteristics etc.

PSB 424          TIMBER PRODUCTS TECHNOLOGY                                            2 units

Distinction between pulp and paper. Historical perspectives on paper making. Sources of pulp materials.Pulping processes. Laboratory assessment of suitability of pulp elements for paper-making. Paper making procedure.Excursion to Pulp and paper making industries in Nigeria. Fibre cell wall morphology; Light microscope and ultrastructure.

PSB 431          ADVANCES IN PLANT PHYSIOLOGY                                          2 units

Respiration. Photosynthesis. Protein synthesis. Absorption and translocation. The control of growth and differentiation, plant growth hormones. The control of development, hormones and gene activity. Plant and manometry, chromatography and bioassay of growth hormone etc.

PSB 433          PLANT EMBRYOLOGY AND MORPHOGENESIS                        2 units

Embryo development including endosperm formation, Polyembryony; apomixes. The seed. Embryology in relation to taxonomy. Experimental and applied embryology. Plant apical organization. Tissue differentiation, differentiation without growth. Growth polarity and development pattern. Symmetry and form. Regeneration in lower and higher plants.Chimeras. Abnormal development of organ. Morphogenetic factors and growth. of seedling, organ, tissue and cell culture technique

PSB 441          ADVANCES IN PLANT PATHOLOGY                                           2 units

Survey of classification of plant pathogens and diseases.Principles of plant infection, diseased transmission and epidemiology.Physiology and anatomy of the diseases plant.Relation of environment to disease development. Principles of plant disease control. Review study of selected plant diseases.

PSB 443          FUNGUS PHYSIOLOGY                                                                 2 units

Composition of fungal cells, liberation and germination of spores. Growth and reproduction. Nutrition and metabolism. Synthesis of lipids and proteins. Vitamin requirements and their production, Microbial antagonism.

PSB 445          PLANT VIROLOGY AND DIAGNOSTICS                                      2 units

Survey of plant viruses with special reference to structure, physical and chemical properties; serological relationships, transmission, variability, infection, replication, movement, quantitative assays, purification and electron microscopy. Acquired immunity and environmental influence, studies of selected virus diseases and general principles of control.

PSB 451          CYTOLOGY                                                                                     2 units

Detailed study of the cell and its organelles at the ultrastructurallevel. Cytology, heredity, taxonomy and evolution. Energy balance sheet of the cell, metabolic interrelations. Variations in chromosome number and size. Karyotype analysis. Use of cytology in detection and monitoring of environmental pollutions. Effects of mutation on chromosome number and morphology. Recent advances in Cytology etc.

PSB 453          GENETICS AND PLANT BREEDING                                               2 units

Studies of pure lines, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and quantitative inheritance, heritability, genetic drift and equilibrium, inbreeding depression and heterosis, methods of breeding including breeding for resistance. Effects of polyploidy, mutation, etc in plant breeding. Recent advances in plant breeding.

PSB 455          ADVANCES IN PLANT MOLECULAR BIOLOGY                            2 units

The Structure, conformation and other properties of nucleic acids and proteins, with special reference to X-ray crystallography and other physical techniques. Polysaccharides, glycoprotein, cell wall structures and lignin, etc. and related biological macromolecules. Structure and properties of DNA and RNA etc.

PSB 457          PHYTOBIOINFORMATICS                                                             1 unit

Use of computer information technology to analyze and integrate diverse biological data generated by Plant biotechnological advances. Analysis of varied genomic and post genomic data generated by the – omictechnologies. Access to GenBank meta-database for information on DNA sequence data. Sharing of biotechnological information using the internet etc.

PSB 461          AQUATIC AND POLLUTION BIOLOGY                                             2 units

Types and sources of Pollution. Water, Land and Air pollution. Methods of remediation and control of pollution, Aquatic plants – Microphytes and Macrophytes. Effects of pollution on plants. Plants used in Phytoremediation. Economic importance of pollution etc.

PSB 462          PLANT ECOLOGY                                                                               2 units

Population Ecology, Pattern, Concept of Plant Community, Vegetational changes and climax vegetation, Allelopathy, Seed Dispersal and Dormancy. Weed Ecology and Control Measures. Fire as an Ecological Factor. Primary Productivity etc.

PSB 463          ECONOMIC AND INDUSTRIAL BOTANY                                          2 units

Origin and evolution of cultivated plants with special reference to Nigeria and West Africa. Productivity and the economic aspects of the utilization of food resources, aspects of land use in crops production. Classification, botanical characteristics and economic exploitation of plants used as sources of food, fibres, oil, latex, timber, drugs, etc.

PSB 464          PHYTOREMEDIATION AND EROSION MANAGEMENT                 2 units

Methods of Phytoremediation:  Phytoaccumulation and phytoextration, rhizofiltration, phytostabilization, phytodegradation, phytovolatilization, hydraulic control of pollutants by plants, vegetation cover etc. Plants suitable for phytoremediation. Plant enzymes involved in phytoremediation. Role of micro-organism in degradation. Influence of environmental factors on phytoremediation. Techniques used to enhance phytoremediation. Types, causes and control of soil erosions (in Nigeria). Features of plants for erosion remediation.

PSB 465          PHYTO-ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT                      1 unit

Definitions, methods, applications and sustainability of impact assessments. Assessment of the effects of projects, such as mines, pulp and paper mills, breweries and irrigation projects on plants and plant ecosystems before and after establishment. Continuous monitoring of human activities on plants, animals, humanity, atmosphere, etc. Remediation approaches.

PSB 466          PHYTOINDUSTRIAL RELATIONS                                                  1 unit

Relating Plant and Biotech researches to Industrial needs. Initiating research efforts based on specified industrial needs. Fostering synergy between researchers and industrial concerns. Industries related to plants: Mushroom, herbal soap production, herbal cosmetics, herbal teas, seed companies, plant propagation, paper and paper recycling industries etc. Consultancy services in ecological management, conservation, wood and wood products preservation, use of phytoplankton for fish and other animal protein production etc.

PSB 467          PHYTOGEOGRAPHY                                                                      1 unit

Plant Distribution with emphasis on Nigerian Ecosystems. Causative Factors: Topography, Edaphic, Salinity, Climatic, etc. Adaptation for Survival. Major Ecosystems in Nigeria: Physiognomy of Trees and Shrubs in the Tropical Rain Forest, Savanna Ecosystem.

PSB 469          PLANTS PRODUCTIVITY AND APICULTURE                                1 unit

Apiculture, definition and history.Genetic diversity of bees. Colony life and social organization of bees. Construction and management of apiaries. Vegetation types for bee keeping. Pollination and bee/flora studies. Consultancy services to farmers for the use of apiculture in boosting crop productivity. Products and uses of Apiculture. Economic importance of honey and honey products.


Laboratory safety and principles of aseptic culture. Plant anatomy/development review. Basic media components. Types of cultures – organ, callus, cell suspension-cultures, embryo rescue, protoplast isolation, culture and plant regeneration. Morphogenesis, organogenesis and embryogenesis. Applications of Plant Tissue Culture.

PSB 473          PHYTO-BIOFUELS                                                                          1 unit

Definitions and methods of production of bio-diesel, ethanol, methanol, smokeless coal etc. Burning of plant organic matter for production of biofuel. Clean energy production from plant materials. Fermentation of sugar, corn etc. for biofuel production. Biofuel from algae. Ethical issues in use of food materials for biofuel production. Energy from forestry etc.

PSB 474          PHYTOBIOTECHNOLOGY ETHICS                                                 1 unit

Concerns about genetically modified crops: environmental, social and economic impacts. Risk/safety assessment of GM crops. Criteria for field testing of GM crops. Risk management. National/institutional bio-safety guidelines. UNIDO/UNEP/WHO/FAO working group guidelines on bio-safety.  Intellectual property rights on life forms: opportunities and concerns. Who owns biodiversity? etc. Ethical issues involved in biotechnological processes.

PSB 475     PLANT BIOPHYSICS                                                                           2 units

Definitions and historical perspectives. Principles and techniques of Physics applied to solving plant science problems, like the use of X-ray crystallography in the analysis of the DNA structure etc.  Effects of magnetism, electromagnetism, light of different wavelengths, nanoparticles, ionizing radiations, various mutagenic agents, sound vibrations, radio waves, base station and handset radiations, microwave and electronic gadget radiations, high tension electric wires etc., on plant cells, tissues, organs, responses, growth, productivity etc.

PSB 477          APPLICATIONS OF PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY                            2 units

Mass propagation of plants including endangered and underutilized species. Production of disease – free plants. Production of haploids. Somatic hybridization. Mutation induction in vitro. Conservation and storage of plant materials in vitro. Biosynthesis of substances (Secondary metabolites) in vitro. Plant genetic transformation either through somaclonal variation or direct gene transfer. Diagnostic in plant diseases. Plant biotech applications in: food and agriculture; environment, medicine (as in medicinal plants and pharmaceuticals) and industries. GMOs and the environment. Biosafety issues/guidelines. Intellectual property rights and patents. Engineering stress, herbicide, drought, disease, pesticide, tolerance etc. in plants.

PSB 481          SEMINAR                                                                                      2 units

Power Point presentation of reviews of selected and approved topics in Plant Science and Biotechnology. This gives students the opportunity to essentially read and digest many journal articles, from the internet and libraries, on a subject matter. The use of textbook will be very minimal. Softbound copies of write-ups are expected to be submitted as a vital part of the course

PSB   491        PRINCIPLES OF SCIENTIFIC WRITING                                            1 unit

Definitions and history of scientific writing: The IMRAD format of scientific writing. How to write the Abstract, Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, Acknowledgements and cite References. How to design effective Tables and Illustrations- Graphs, Photographs, Charts etc.

PSB  492         PROJECT                                                                                           6 units

This is designed to give the student an opportunity to carry out a small independent research project on diverse aspects of Plant Science and Biotechnology, which must be approved by the Departmental Board and executed under the supervision of one or more members of staff. Two or more students may work on different aspects of a topic or subject matter. All students are expected to submit both hard and soft copies (CD) of their projects after examination and corrections.

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Henry Divine is a passionate educator and seasoned blogger with a strong commitment to providing valuable insights and resources to the education community. With over 6 years of experience in the field, Henry's articles are well-researched, authoritative, and tailored to meet the needs of teachers, students, and parents alike. Through his blog, Henry aims to empower readers with practical tips, innovative strategies, and evidence-based practices to foster lifelong learning and academic success. Follow Henry for the latest updates and expert advice on all things education.

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